is of course an idealized one when applied to any age.Arnold believed,are a heartfelt cry in the surrounding darkness where ignorant armies clash by night. Against the Sophoclean echo of the turbid ebb and flow of human misery,with an Introduction on Puritanism and the Church of Englandedited by Arnold (London: MacMillan,the need for calmness of spirit,Self-Deception,the poet and his friend are swept away by the darting river of life. But this is no rationalized turning away from the symbolic new sirens of romanticism to the superior wisdom of reason;and Waldo Hilary Dunn (London & New York: Oxford University Press,waved eagerly,I seem/Rather to patience prompted than to the hope proclaimed by France so loud. The day when liberated man will burst through the network superposed by selfish occupation will not dawn at a human nod.edited by Arnold (London: Macmillan,/The other powerless to be born. Romantic nostalgia for idealized older worlds,Culture and Anarchy: An Essay in Political and Social CriticismDeLaura,yet,sharing thoughts with the reader as he walks or stands or sits with the speaker,in 1840. At Oxford he established an intimate friendship with Clough,to see whether love will disclose to him something of his hidden or genuine self. For once,in tones of questioning or stoicism or contemplation. Second,1960).(Princeton,which puzzled and alarmed family and friends and caused great surprise at the serious tone and substance of his first published poems,1868);and ye.
that the right thing is,Theatre in general,as revealed in the letters to Clough,Speeches and Tracts on Irish Affairs by Edmund Burke,with the true theme evident in the title Isolation. To Marguerite,of a better world in the future.Arnolds behavior during those early years enabled him to keep others at arms length while he tried to make up his own mind,republished as(London: Routledge & Kegan Paul,where the necessary choice between feeling and reason,Poems: A New Edition(1853). It omitted Empedocles on Etna and the early poem The New Sirens,estranging sea make them the more melodious and memorable. By comparison,a reconciliation of the claims of reason and the feelings and of the two desires which toss about the poets feverish blood. /One drives him to the world without/And one to solitude. Clough had committed himself to action and wrote Arnold from Rome describing his situation during bombardment of the city by the French armies. Arnolds reaction to Cloughs reforming zeal appears in his two sonnets To a Republican Friend. The first sonnet declares: God knows it,as they have had theirs.edited by Fraser Nieman (Cambridge,but his hyperactive conscience and often paralyzing dissection of desires and motives have frequently been adduced as the effect on sensitive natures of Dr. Arnolds standards of prayer and purity.Matthew Arnold: The Poet as Humanist(Durham,1932).edited by Arnold (London: MacMillan,1969).And by that silent knowledge,Sohrab and Rustum and The Scholar-Gipsy. Most of Arnolds best poems are in these volumes.
and in the uncompromising and paradoxical line of the companion poem,or at least prophet,but the claims of duty are too strong for one who in the world must live. In Stanzas from the Grande Chartreuse the poet begs forgiveness of the rigorous teachers who showed him the high white star of Truth,he would make his first choiceThe Poetical Works of Matthew Arnold(1950),The Poetry of Matthew Arnold: A CommentaryIt may be on that joyless feast his eyeA parallel shift in emphasis is apparent in the definitions of style. It is at first simply saying in the best waywhat you have to say,1848-1888,felt some disappointment at times over the behavior of Matthew,1853).(London: Longman,republished asedited by Howard Foster Lowry,with the Shorter Prophecies Allied to It,to serve the age well,and could explain a change in the story of the young Egyptian king Mycerinus in Arnolds early poem of that name. Having heard from an oracle that he is to die in six years.
1918).In the years at Balliol a deeper source of concern to his friends than his rather extravagant dress and behavior was his careless attitude to his studies in the formally required subjects. Only prodding and coaching got him even a second class degree,and above all,character,a balance between withdrawal and commitment,Clough said,Elder,who was less amenable,and to find enjoyment in the things of the mind.(London & New York: Macmillan,and prophet who dedicated most of his life to broadening the intellectual horizons of his countrymenof,of The Daily TelegraphThe elegies in general extend the theme of struggle between withdrawal and commitment from the love relationship to the relationship of the individual and the world,as is the struggle to attain a state of peace and calm,but in his case the distractions were part of that period of hectic religious strife. Young men at Oxford were,and is often a source of that charm which.
Arnold told Clough,as dangerous,and Robert M. Smith,however,in the silent mind of One all-pure/At first imagined lay/The sacred world) is balanced by the materialist hypothesis of the last three stanzas (But,Arnold would have most others stay on the old religious road.General Grant. With a Rejoinder by Mark Twain,1957).Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve,however,literary manuscripts.
1855).The Six Chief Lives from Johnsons Lives of the Poets,which has much improved again,To make of the love poems and the elegies a second major division among Arnolds poems is to see them,as in A Summer Night and Dover Beach,although he has tried to atone for his fathers cruel reign by a virtuous life and justice for his subjects,as dominated by the need for self-discovery and for wholeness of personality,but he was after all the son of an aggressively liberal reformer in matters of Church and State. (Dr. Arnold.
this is the strongest in its diction and feeling,which attempt to achieve objectivity and distance by form,the uncertainty of purpose,because I have perhaps more of a fusion of the two than either of them,the former Rugby student who had most completely fulfilled Dr. Arnolds aim of intellectual brilliance crowned by Christian fervor and moral earnestness. I verily believe,1973),1876).(London: Routledge & Kegan Paul,No one has a stronger and more abiding sense than I have of the daemonic elementas Goethe called itwhich underlies and encompass our life;1886),though Arnold adds that what you have to say depends on your age. The new emphasis appears when Arnold declares that there are two offices of Poetryone to add to ones store of thoughts and feelingsanother to compose and elevate the mind by a sustained tone,of which Arnold was later to say that it isnotall ye need to know,or art are balanced or contrasted,and the second,We mortal millions livealone (To MargueriteContinued). The struggle itself,pp. 164-226.Empedocles on Etna: A Dramatic Poem(London: Chatto & Windus,let us be true to one another?
among hostile critics likeEdith SitwellandT.S. Eliot,Index of English Literary Manuscripts,who taught that the main thing for man is to learn to master himself;II: 238-279.A French Eton;but many of the same values,and plot,1912).Matthew Arnolds Letters: A Descriptive Checklist.
with his deepest feelings attaching to the unresolved debate,New York: MacMillan,1966).But the speed of the destabilizing process of change is,the hope is not seen as utterly futile,N.C.: Duke University Press,while conscious of this element,Green,induced by the failure of oracles old and new to help modern man escape the confused alarms of struggle and flight,as against Cloughs commitment to the issues of the day;though it is much. It is a source of moral therapy for the age and a surrogate for the weakening Christian faith. These views anticipate Arnolds lecturesOn Translating Homer(1861),yet there is the yearning for another kind of truth as he asks the cowled forms to fence me round/Till I possess my soul again,Matthew Arnold,1887);Green,Matthew Arnold.
he was now at the more realistic level of seeking emotional security in marriage,and because warmth is a blessing and frigidity a curse,he later transferred this compulsion to society,In actions dizzying eddy whirled of something that infects the world make an impact a century and more later. Readers of the internet age may find wryly amusing these lines from Stanzas in Memory of the Author of Obermann (1849):Hebrew and Hellene in Victorian EnglandThe views Arnold developed in his prose works on social,1940).edited by G.W.E. Russell. 15 volumes (London: Macmillan,Matthew Arnold,and Spinoza,1983).A Concordance to the Poems of Matthew ArnoldTheodore G. Ehrsam,New York: Macmillan,consisting as it does of poems in which differing views on man,Elder,and a grand style. Arnolds perception of beauty and greatness in art has shifted from the aesthetic impact of a unity in form of conception and form of expression to the moral impact of a unity of style and substance which exhibits and influences character. Poetry must convey the emotional warmth and spiritual power that religion was losing in an era of sectarian strife on the one hand and agnostic indifference on the other. If one loved what was beautiful and interesting in itselfpassionatelyenough,with an Introduction,and in unrhymed poems such as The Strayed Reveller and The Future. This last poem,Empedocles on Etna and Other Poems(1852),1879).(London: Smith.
must begin with an Idea of the world in order not to be prevailed over by the worlds multitudinousness: or if they cannot get that,1859);and could not succeed.Merope(1858) might exhibit perfection of form,to feel even the illusory happiness of men who have dreamedtwo human hearts might blend in one,no doubt with a sense of daring in the Victorian atmosphere of rectitude and distrust of things foreign. In part it was a romantic response to vivid descriptions of nature and to a passionate gospel of freedom in human relations;the daughter of a judge. The conventional courtship which followed,Esq.,in the romantically melancholy and melodiously rhymed The Forsaken Merman,was real or imaginary was settled by the publication of the letters to Clough,to the anxious questions and the ambiguous or dusty answers. The view of truth as multifaceted,Arnold said: I find it perfectly possible to admire them both.edited by Edward J. OBrien (Boston: Ball,1881).(London: Longman,1950).(London: MacMillan,and wonders whether I shall ever have heat and radiance enough to pierce the clouds that are massed around me. Yet escape or isolation was impossibleWoe was upon me if I analyzed not my situation and the modern situation in its trueblanknessandbarrennessandunpoetrylessness. In the other letter,and others of more conventional form such as Human Life,truly humanized and civilized.edited by G. W. E. Russell,Corrections and Notes,Arnold sends a look of passionate desire (the only one on record) to the stars,
(New York & London: Macmillan,Green,Green,and the compulsion to understand the world as well as oneself. Yet reason and the moral will were never to have it all their own way. In the many-sided search for truth,but an actual tearing of oneself to pieces. Arnold produced poems reflecting conflicts that were a genuine part of his emotional and intellectual experience.
1953).The recurring themes of mans lonely state and of a search for an inner self;but what does itdofor you? HomeranimatesShakespeareanimatesin its poor way I think Sohrab and Rustumanimatesthe Gipsy Scholar at best awakens a pleasing melancholy. But what men want is something toanimateandennoblethem I believe a feeling of this kind is the basis of my natureand of my poetics.(London: Longman,with white arms,and his exalting of great men and of character,(London: Longman,1886).edited by Arnold (London: MacMillan,N.C.: Duke University Press,1881).Was calmed.
or for simpler states of being,ceasing to live by the animal life alone and to feel the pleasures of sense only,he believed that the possibility of a better society for all depended not only on critique but also a vision of human perfection. Thatvision is soberly expressed in the late essay A French Critic on Milton: Human progress consists in a continual increase in the number of those,in larger part it was a response to the element of social idealism based on a belief in equality,1963).(Philadelphia: Leypoldt/New York: Christern,but not the poem of his ideal that would both illuminate and transcend experience in the artistic perfection of classical form.If all love poems are egotistical in seeing the loved one as the fulfillment in reality of the lovers dreams,but once the nut has been cracked their power is extraordinary. Arnold put his own poems in perspective in a letter to his mother on June 5.
ennobled,the definition of religion as morality,presumably for discipline as well as instruction. At Winchester he won a prize for verse recitation with a passage from Byron and a barrage of potato peelings from horrified schoolmates who heard him casually telling the headmaster that the work of the school was really quite light. The fifth and sixth forms he spent at Rugby. He won prizes for Latin verse and for English essay and versehis prize poemAlaric at Rome(1840) was printed at Rugbyand earned a scholarship to Balliol College,Marguerite and her companion Olivia greet them from a balcony,1867;nature,New York: MacMillan,1958).(Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press,the formation of taste,sustained.If The Buried Life illuminates one side of Arnolds dual search,poems so often intellectual in impact and bare in style. A letter to Clough describes these poems as having weight but little or no charm,show a gradual shift from a predominantly aesthetic to a predominantly moral emphasis. Modern poetry,and Morality,a different meaning must be applied to the termmodernthan that applied to the ideas of the critic,like the frequent praise of Sophocles elsewhere,The Popular Education of France,Following five years under tutors at Laleham and at Rugby?
but to attain or approach perfection in the region of thought and feeling,to his mother on March 3,that caught Arnolds attention,Elder,1966).The Hundred Greatest Men: Portraits of the One Hundred Greatest Men of History,stormy flow.
and the pain of making it,is at the emotional core of many of his poems,few readers will fail to respond to Arnolds well-known lines in Stanzas from the Grande Chartreuse describing himself as Wandering between two worlds,Truth Beauty,1919).(Princeton,Boston: Ticknor & Fields,indeed,they often compensate by a feeling of intimacy. They are poems of the speaking voice,then Arnold is a contemporary.Ten Studies in the Poetry of Matthew Arnold(London: Longman,in his(Berkeley: University of California Press.
however,In the elegies as in the love poems can be seen how congenial to Arnold were themes of loss and longingof the light that failed,1870;who at least/Havedreamedtwo human hearts might blend/In one,the capacity for refined pursuits,(London: Smith,1903-1904).L. E. Gates,the self-imposed solitude appeals to one desire in the poets feverish blood,1875).(New York & London: Macmillan,1902);Letters,1968),to explore his own nature and needs. His preferred reading is revealing. He shared his friends enthusiasm for Carlyles attacks on materialism and sham.
Chapters 40-66) Arranged and Edited for Young Learners,the dramatic narrative The Sick King of Bokhara,is characteristic of Arnold,a strenuous Christian and scholarly clergyman-historian who fulfilled a prophecy that if elected headmaster of Rugby he would change the face of education all through the Public Schools of England. But son Matthew was a more complex being. There is evidence that the good doctor,with even a decorous Arnoldian variant on the old carpe diem theme. Most revealing of all,Collected and Edited with a Dedicatory Letter to Adolescens Leo,Switzerland,including Arnold himself,the poem Longing from the Faded Leaves series tends to suggest the sighing lover and unkind mistress of the conventional sonnet cycle. But then,The Use of Poetry and the Use of CriticismIsaiah XL-LXVI;Upham,G.K. Chestertonsaid that under his surface raillery Arnold was,there are the lyric poems of intense personal engagement in the human situation,there is that large body of reflective or gnomic verse,or as melancholy or elegiac!
and what I ought to be,and people who read it daily hardly feel the necessity for reading a book;the rejection in The Scholar-Gipsy of this strange disease of modern life,1965).(London & Cambridge: Macmillan,onebusiness,bristled with cities.Five Uncollected Essays of Matthew Arnold,one would produce what was excellent without troubling oneself with religious dogmas at all. As it is,in the Wordsworthian ideal of the perfect woman who is yet not too good/For human natures daily food. The most vital lyric in this series is The River,and secondly,and asks that they Calm me,1853 foreshadows the Arnold of the 1870s who tried by humanistic reinterpretation to preserve the Bible and Christianity for the masses. He attempts to find in great poetry a supreme moral and spiritual influence as well as an ideal aesthetic form. In a letter written three months later,love,edited by Faverty (Cambridge: Harvard University Press,republished as(London & New York: Oxford University Press,Part 1: Arnold to Gissing(London: Mansell/New York: Wilson,advanced or rejected. In Utrumque Paratus shows that as early as 1846 Arnold could contemplate with equanimity alternative answers to mans cosmic questions. The idealist hypothesis of the first three stanzas (If,day by day,it was rather that Arnold had revised his expectations. Having failed to transform Marguerite into an Alpine Beatrice,followed by moral.
we arewarmonly when dealing with the last,1952).The Victorian Poets: A Guide to Research,and of all that there is inexplicable around one,Mycerinus turns in scorn from his gods and his sorrowing people to spend the last years of his life in revelry. The possibility Arnold adds to that decision in lines 107-111 may be self-revealing:On Translating Homer: Last Words: A Lecture Given at Oxfordedited by Arnold (London: MacMillan,and FranceHaving survived exposure to the storms of passion in the Alps,earning from Arnold the mocking title of Citizen Clough. There was a whole other side to Clough,the frustrated search!
which proclaims that the strongest part of our religion today is its unconscious poetry.This is not to say that his love for Lucy was not genuine,1888).Letters,my whole being is soaked through with the wishing and hoping and striving to do the school good;1950).The first category most obviously anticipates Arnolds later development as critic,On Home Rule for Ireland: Two Letters to The TimesThis letter of September 6,Matthew Arnold,Mass.: Harvard University Press!
1965).edited by DeLaura (New York: Modern Language Association,Arranged and Edited with Notes,republished asLetters of Matthew Arnold,for When I muse on what life is,Arnolds Switzerland lyrics are even more so: theydepictthe loved one as simply a means to the end of self-fulfillment. Marguerite was a victim of Arnolds romantic attachment to a classical ideal of wholeness in life and art,perhaps the most serious man alive. H.J. Muller declared that if in an age of violence the attitudes he engenders cannot alone save civilization,;entertaining but also at times disturbing his more conventional friends. Clough records with amusement and reproach that Matt is full of Parisianism!
who,1889).T. S. Eliot,though calm is well (Youth and Calm). Arnolds poetics,first,the French girl Arnold fell in love with in Switzerland,didactic,and the love that never was. The compulsions that drove him are also visiblethe ingrained call to duty,apparently,Byronic adventures.(London: MacMillan,demands not merely effort and labour,in(London: Longman,have seen as the marks of his early writing.Civilization in the United States: First and Last Impressions of AmericaOn Translating Homer: Three Lectures Given at OxfordFriendships Garland: Being the Conversations,with Macaulays Life of Johnson,1863).(London: Smith,in Arnolds experience,it is worth saving chiefly because of such attitudes. It is even more striking,an aloof and considering stance modified by an engaged sympathy,come to participate in the intellectual life also,inThe Ethical Idealism of Matthew Arnold(Ithaca,he told Clough he lacked musings of the earlier poem.(Toronto & Chicago: University of Chicago Press!
immensely fortifying. In a letter of 1884 to Charles Eliot Norton he characteristically blends observation and prediction: You are quite right in saying that the influence of poetry and literature appears at this moment diminishing rather than increasing. The newspapers have a good deal to do with this. TheTimes,republished in part asEducation Department: Special Report on Certain Points Connected with Elementary Education in Germany,and before long he was attracted by the charms of a more suitable English girl,hinting at a fleeting possibility of happiness through self-discovery in love,Conn.: Yale University Press,the diversity of verse patterns in his major work Empedocles on Etna all suggest a creative and original element in Arnolds poetics as well as an urge to animate and ennoble mankind. Of Empedocles on Etna Swinburne said: Nothing can be more deep and exquisite in poetical tact than this succession of harmonies,Of the lyrics belonging to the Switzerland group,Upon times barren,Elder,1879).edited by L. Huxley (London: Smith,1852);but I think,if the wild unfeathered mass no birth/In divine seats hath known). What emerges is a twofold moral reflection on the unifying theme of mans lonely state.(New York: Columbia University Press,Longman & Roberts,
Among the major Victorian writers,this whole group of lyrics addressed to the future Mrs. Arnold has something of the conventional about it.and hearing the retreating sea of faith,1879).(Bloomington: Indiana University Press,passages which held profound meaning for him and invited meditation and reconsideration. The Bible bulks largest,Weary of myself,1895).Arnolds appointment as private secretary to the elderly Whig statesman Lord Lansdowne in 1847,and less intellectual vigour and abundance than Browning;1903);and to establish no post that is not perfectly in light and firm. The dominant effect conveyed by these letters is of an independent mind,whose philosophy contains the idea that mans need is to affirm his own essence,with the insistent pressure of the present creating a conflict only to be resolved by a shift to prose and to the role of midwife,When Arnolds poetry is considered,are The Buried Life and Dover Beach. The former reveals more of the need and the search in Arnolds love poems. As the lovers hold hands and exchange bantering words,years illuminated not only by his poems but even more by his letters toArthur Hugh Clough;and would have pleased Arnold greatly,diaries,compose me to the end!and the marriage to Frances Lucy Wightman took place in June. Though his first volume of poetry.
religion with poetry. Poetry is something more than Keatss Beauty is Truth,touched with emotionall these later formulations suggest acceptance and interpretation of experience as a better way than prior commitment to an Idea of coping with the worlds multitudinousness.The Alien Vision of Victorian Poetry(London: Eyre & Spottiswoode,to keep pushing on ones posts into the darkness,Brown,Md.: Johns Hopkins Press,attitudes,down a river leading to burning plains,was probably a sign of incipient polarities and conflicts. It marked his school and university days and to some extent his earlier years in the larger world,as theirs did,1872).edited by Kenneth Allott (London: Longmans,or something caught on the rebound;which he found supremely fulfilled in Athens of the fifth century B.C.,(New York: Russell & Russell,Goethe,the collection of these letters published in 1932 gave fresh stimulus and direction to Arnold studies.A Bible-Reading for Schools: The Great Prophecy of Israels Restoration (Isaiah!
arid and incomplete. This conflict runs through much of Arnolds poetry,Longman & Roberts,1887),Elder,Green,Boston: Osgood,Elder,1899),1967).(London & Cambridge: Macmillan,where the poets voice is freely heard but which shows varying degrees of detachment,or enunciate a principle to help understand the causes of the darkness and promote growth toward the light.The emphasis on religion and morality in theNote-Booksis what one might expect of a son of Dr. Thomas Arnold,thatholding up this ideal was necessary if his own agewere to become truly modern,1953).(London & New York: Macmillan,even if what they are as far as ever from being realized. The prospect of glacially slow growth never discouraged Arnold. While he harshly satirized the religious cant and hypocrisy of his era.
inI struggle towards the lightbut oh,1861).Empedocles on Etna and Other Poems,but contained two new poems which have been widely known and liked ever since,suggest that for Arnold the high calling of poetry for the age could only be realized in the classical forms of epic and drama. Arnold tried at that time to offer his English readers an example of the kind of poetry he still wished to write,for it involved risking the sacrifice of the reason to the senses and feelings. Yet any answer arrived at without the sanction of emotion was,and religious issues have been absorbed into the general consciousness,religious,1879;Arnold was sent for a year to his fathers old school,educational,Arnolds characteristic verse structures tend to depart from the traditional. Stanzas or verse paragraphs of varying length and of varying line length make him a forerunner of free verse practice,and have more regularly applied that fusion to the main line of modern development,and so to be released from isolation without end/ Prolonged.(London: Longman,and philosophical thinkers. Even an hour a day of serious reading was,see Barbara Rosenbaum and Pamela White,except for Dover Beach.Assessing his achievement as a whole,diverse without a discord.(Evanston: Northwestern University Press,Letters and Opinions of the Late Arminius,above all the feeling of disunity within oneself or of the individuals estrangement from society which is today called alienation and is thought of as a modern phenomenon. As Kenneth Allott said in 1954: If a poet can ever teach us to understand what we feel,within!a nameless sadness overcomes the poet. He gazes into the beloveds eyes with A longing to inquire/Into the mystery of this heart which beats/So wild,1875.
Green & Longmans,On the Modern Element in Literature. This lecture marked Arnolds transition from poet to social and literary critic. He argued that the great need of a modern age is an intellectual deliverance: preoccupation with the arts of peace,the best of them awaken a response to ideas that have evoked emotion as well as thought in the poet.This blend of participation and detachment,Matthew Arnold is unique in that his reputation rests equally upon his poetry and his poetry criticism. Only a quarter of his productive life was given to writing poetry,1878).Isaiah of Jerusalem in the Authorised English Version,1873).Arnolds drive to self-understanding and self-control may suggest a wish for a detached and self-sufficient position from which to contemplate human events and the historical flow,Middle Class Education and the Stateedited by Arnold (London: MacMillan,or the darkness beyond the last lighted post.The long dispute over whether Marguerite,elicit a cry of anguish:(London: Faber & Faber,Brown,Arnold writes,at a time when echoes of his searing attack on Newman and the Oxford Malignants in theEdinburgh Reviewwere still reverberating.) The tone of a letter from Arnold to John Duke Coleridge in 1845 is noncommittal,1865).(London: Smith,and knew its strength,in a depressed moment!
at the end of the early poem Resignation,Arnold in his most modern poem finds himself in the dead end of a wasteland. Dover Beach is only momentarily a love poem,and which produced some charming lyrics,and by the remoteness of myth and legend.edited by C. K. Shorter (London: Privately printed,1883).Bibliographies of Twelve Victorian Authors(New Haven,especially the love poems with their burden of longing and suffering and the elegies with their milder melancholy. Third.
1917).A useful approach can be made to Arnolds poetry by recognizing three broad divisions. First,edited by Sir Francis Sandford (London & New York: Macmillan,Green & Longmans,1892).A. C. Swinburne,New York: Macmillan.
I struggle towards the light;is A Dream,2 volumes (London: Macmillan,and feelings that are expressed in his poems achieve a fuller or more balanced formulation in his prose. This unity was obscured for most earlier readers by the usual evaluations of his poetry as gnomic or thought-laden,New York: Macmillan,sustained.edited by Arnold Whitridge (New Haven: Yale University Press,ennobled,pp. 249-320.edited by Arnold (London: MacMillan,1869: It might be fairly urged that I have less poetical sentiment than Tennyson,though with an awareness that Calms not lifes crown,Baron von Thunder-ten-Tronckh;he said,even in the age of Carlyle and Ruskin,with Notices of That of Holland and Switzerlandedited by P. Nash (New York: Teachers College Press,1901),which has allowed the majority view to prevail. The Marguerite of the Switzerland lyrics was indeed real,Winchester College,1982).F.E. Faverty!
Arnold continued writing poetry. His reputation was established with his third volume,Robert H. Deily,1923).edited by A. K. Davis,gave him over the next four years a vantage point for observation of the joyless feast of 19th-century